Understanding Dysgraphia - International Dyslexia Association (2023)

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What is dysgraphia?

Dysgraphia is a Greek word. The base word graph refers both to the hand’s function in writing and to the letters formed by the hand. The prefix dys indicates that there is impairment. Graph refers to producing letter forms by hand. The suffix ia refers to having a condition. Thus, dysgraphia is the condition of impaired letter writing by hand, that is, disabled handwriting. Impaired handwriting can interfere with learning to spell words in writing and speed of writing text. Children with dysgraphia may have only impaired handwriting, only impaired spelling (without reading problems), or both impaired handwriting and impaired spelling.

What causes dysgraphia?

Research to date has shown orthographic coding in working memory is related to handwriting and is often impaired in dysgraphia. Orthographic coding refers to the ability to store written words in working memory while the letters in the word are analyzed or the ability to create permanent memory of written words linked to their pronunciation and meaning. Children with dysgraphia do not have primary developmental motor disorder, another cause of poor handwriting, but may have difficulty planning sequential finger movements such as the touching of the thumb to successive fingers on the same hand without visual feedback. Children with dysgraphia may have difficulty with both orthographic coding and planning sequential finger movements.

Does dysgraphia occur alone or with other specific learning disabilities?

Children with impaired handwriting may also have attention-deficit disorder (ADHD)–inattentive, hyperactive, or combined inattentive and hyperactive subtypes. Children with this kind of dysgraphia may respond to a combination of explicit handwriting instruction plus stimulant medication, but appropriate diagnosis of ADHD by a qualified professional and monitoring of response to both instruction and medication are needed.

Dysgraphia may occur alone or with dyslexia (impaired reading disability) or with oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD, also referred to as selective language impairment, SLI).

Dyslexia is a disorder that includes poor word reading, word decoding, oral reading fluency, and spelling. Children with dyslexia may have impaired orthographic and phonological coding, rapid automatic naming and focused, switching, and/or sustained attention.

OWL LD (SLI) is impaired language (morphology–word parts that mark meaning and grammar; syntax–structures for ordering words and understanding word functions; finding words in memory, and/or making inferences that go beyond what is stated in text). These disorders affect spoken as well as written language. Children with these language disorders may also exhibit the same writing and reading and related disorders as children with dysgraphia or dyslexia.

Why is diagnosis of dysgraphia and related learning disabilities important?

Without diagnosis, children may not receive early intervention or specialized instruction in all the relevant skills that are interfering with their learning of written language. Considering that many schools do not have systematic instructional programs in handwriting and spelling, it is important to assess whether children need explicit, systematic instruction in handwriting and spelling in addition to word reading and decoding. Many schools offer accommodations in testing and teaching to students with dysgraphia, but these students also need ongoing, explicit instruction in handwriting, spelling, and composition. It is also important to determine if a child with dysgraphia may also have dyslexia and require special help with reading or OWL LD (SLI) and need special help with oral as well as written language.

(Video) Dyslexia, dysgraphia, & dyscalculia

What kinds of instructional activities improve the handwriting of children with dysgraphia?

Initially, children with impaired handwriting benefit from activities that support learning to form letters:

  • playing with clay to strengthen hand muscles;
  • keeping lines within mazes to develop motor control;
  • connecting dots or dashes to create complete letter forms;
  • tracing letters with index finger or eraser end of pencil;
  • imitating the teacher modeling sequential strokes in letter formation; and
  • copying letters from models.

Subsequently, once children learn to form legible letters, they benefit from instruction that helps them develop automatic letter writing, using the following steps to practice each of the 26 letters of the alphabet in a different order daily:

  • studying numbered arrow cues that provide a consistent plan for letter formation
  • covering the letter with a 3 x 5 card and imaging the letter in the mind’s eye
  • writing the letter from memory after interval that increases in duration over the handwriting lessons
  • writing letters from dictation (spoken name to letter form).

In addition, to developing handwriting speed, they benefit from writing letters during composing daily for 5 to 10 minutes on a teacher-provided topic.

Students benefit from explicit instruction in spelling throughout K-12:

  • initially in high frequency Anglo-Saxon words;
  • subsequently in coordinating the phonological, orthographic, and morphological processes relevant for the spelling of longer, more complex, less frequent words; and
  • at all grade levels in the most common and important words used for the different academic domains of the curriculum.

Throughout K -12, students benefit from strategies for composing:

  • planning, generating, reviewing/evaluating, and revising
  • compositions of different genre including narrative, informational, compare and contrast, and persuasive
  • self-regulation strategies for managing the complex executive functions involved in composing.

Do children with dysgraphia make reversals or other letter production errors?

Some children do make reversals (reversing direction letter faces along a vertical axis), inversions (flipping letters along a horizontal axis so that the letter is upside down), or transpositions (sequence of letters in a word is out of order). These errors are symptoms rather than causes of handwriting problems. The automatic letter writing instruction described earlier has been shown to reduce reversals, which are less likely to occur when retrieval of letters from memory and production of letters have become automatic.

What kind of instructional strategies improve spelling of children with dysgraphia?

If children have both handwriting and spelling problems, the kinds of handwriting instruction described earlier should be included along with the spelling instruction.

Are educators in public schools identifying children with dysgraphia and providing appropriate instruction in public schools?

In general, no. Although federal law specifies written expression as one of the areas in which students with learning disabilities may be affected, it does not clearly identify the transcription problems that are the causal factors in dysgraphia–impaired handwriting and/or spelling–for impaired written expression of ideas. Some of the tests used to assess written expression are not scored for handwriting or spelling problems and mask the nature of the disability in dysgraphia. Content or ideas may not be impaired. All too often, the poor writing or failure to complete writing assignments in a timely fashion or at all is misattributed to lack of motivation, laziness, or other issues unrelated to the real culprit–dysgraphia. Children who are twice exceptional–gifted and dysgraphic–are especially under-diagnosed and underserved. Teachers mistakenly assume that if a student is bright and cannot write it is because the student is not trying.

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Are there research-supported assessment tools for diagnosing dysgraphia?

Yes. See Barnett, Henderson, Scheib, and Schulz (2007), Berninger (2007a), Milone (2007), and Slingerland assessment below for assessing handwriting problems associated with dysgraphia. Also, see Berninger (2007b) and Berninger, O’Donnell, and Holdnack (2008) for using these tests and other evidence-based assessment procedures in early identification, prevention, and diagnosis for linking assessment results to evidence-based handwriting and spelling instruction (also see Troia, 2008).

In summary, dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that can be diagnosed and treated. Children with dysgraphia usually have other problems such as difficulty with written expression. It is important that a thorough assessment of handwriting and related skill areas be carried out in order to plan specialized instruction in all deficient skills that may be interfering with a student’s learning of written language. For example, a student may need instruction in both handwriting and oral language skills to improve written expression. Although early intervention is, of course, desirable, it is never too late during the school age years to intervene to improve a student’s deficient skills and provide appropriate accommodations.

References

Balmuth, M. (2009). The roots of phonics. A historical introduction (Revised ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Berninger, V. (2008). Evidence-based written language instruction during early and middle childhood. In R. Morris & N. Mather (Eds.), Evidence-based interventions for students with learning and behavioral challenges. Philadelphia: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Berninger, V., O’Donnell, L., & Holdnack, J. (2008). Research-supported differential diagnosis of specific learning disabilities and implications for instruction and response to instruction (RTI). In A. Prifitera, D. Saklofske, & L. Weiss (Eds.), WISC-IV Clinical Assessment and Intervention, Second Edition (pp. 69-108). San Diego, CA: Academic Press (Elsevier).

Berninger, V., & Wolf, B. (2009a). Teaching students with dyslexia and dysgraphia: Lessons from teaching and science. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Brooks, A., Berninger, V., Abbott, R., & Richards, T. (2011) Letter naming and letter writing reversals of some children with dyslexia: Symptoms of inefficient phonological and orthographic loops of working memory? Developmental Neuropsychology, 36, 847-868.

Henry, M. (2010). Unlocking literacy. Effective decoding and spelling instruction. (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Moats, L. C. (Winter, 2005/2006). How spelling supports reading: And why it is more regular and predictable than you think. American Educator, 12-22 , 42-43.

(Video) 9. Dyslexia & Dysgraphia

Troia, G. (Ed.). (2008). Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence- based practices. New York: Guilford.

Yates, C., Berninger, V., & Abbott, R. (1994). Writing problems in intellectually gifted children. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 18, 131-155.

Wolf, B. (2011). Teaching handwriting. In J. Birsch (Ed.), Multisensory teaching of basic language skills: Theory and practice, Revised Edition. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Resources for Assessment and Instruction

Barnett, A., Henderson, S., Scheib, B., & Schulz, J. (2007). Detailed Assessment of Speed of Handwriting (DASH). UK: Pearson.

Benbow, M. (1990). Loops and groups: A kinesthetic writing system. San Antonio, TX: Therapy Skill Builders. [For cursive.]

Berninger, V. (2007a), Process Assessment of the Learner, 2nd Edition. Diagnostic for Reading and Writing (PAL-II RW) and Berninger (2007b), User’s Guide (CD format ISBN 0158661818) with writing lessons from UW research program that can be downloaded. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Berninger, V., & Wolf, B. (2009b). Helping students with dyslexia and dysgraphia make connections: Differentiated instruction lesson plans in reading and writing. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. [Teaching plans from University of Washington Research Program.]

Bregman, C. (2009). Move into writing. A lowercase handwriting program. Self published. In consultation with Kristi Komai. Mail to cheryl@miwtherapy.com ISBN: 978- 0-692-00235- 3.

Fry, E. (1996). Spelling book. Level 1-6. Words most needed plus phonics. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials. Retrieved from www.teachercreated.com

(Video) Dyslexia Conference Recording | Dyslexia 101

Getty. B., & -Dubay, I. Productions website: www.handwritingsuccess.com [10 books, materials, and DVD including Write Now for italic writing. DVD distributor is www@allport.com, 1-800-777-2844 (2337 NW York, Portland OR 97210).]

Graham, S., Harris, K., & Loynachan, C. (1994). The spelling for writing list. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 210-214.

Milone, M. (2007). Test of Handwriting Skills- Revised. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy. [Distributed by ProEd, Austin, TX.]

Rubel, B. (1995). Big strokes for little folks. Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.

Slingerland InstituteTrademark [Instructional (manuscript and cursive) and assessment materials and teacher training from Slingerland Institute for Literacy. See www.slingerland.org or call 425-453-1190.]

Slingerland, B., & Aho, M. (1985). Manual for learning to use manuscript handwriting. Cambridge, MA: Educators.

Slingerland, B., & Aho, M. (1985). Manual for learning to use cursive handwriting. Cambridge, MA: Educators.

Zaner-Bloser handwriting programs for use in general and special education. Available at www.zanerbloser.com/fresh/handwriting- overview.html Also see spelling programs.

The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) thanks Virginia W. Berninger, Ph.D., and Beverly Wolf, M.Ed., for their assistance in the preparation of this fact sheet.

(Video) Dyslexia Dysgraphia webinar

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FAQs

What is the connection between dyslexia and dysgraphia? ›

Dyslexia and dysgraphia are both learning differences. Dyslexia primarily affects reading. Dysgraphia mainly affects writing. While they're different, the two are easy to confuse.

Can you have dysgraphia without being dyslexic? ›

Dysgraphia may occur alone or with dyslexia (impaired reading disability) or with oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD, also referred to as selective language impairment, SLI).

What is the main cause of dysgraphia? ›

The cause of the disorder is unknown, but in adults, it is usually associated with damage to the parietal lobe of the brain. Treatment for dysgraphia varies and may include treatment for motor disorders to help control writing movements. Other treatments may address impaired memory or other neurological problems.

What is dysgraphia called now? ›

These skills — handwriting, typing, and spelling — allow us to produce writing. Trouble expressing your thoughts in writing isn't formally recognized as part of dysgraphia. That's a learning disability known as written expression disorder.

What does dysgraphia look like in adults? ›

Adults with dysgraphia have a hard time writing by hand and may struggle with letter formation, letter, word and line spacing, staying inside the margins, neatness, capitalization/punctuation rules, spelling, word choice, and even grammar.

How does dysgraphia affect a person? ›

Dysgraphia is a neurological disorder of written expression that impairs writing ability and fine motor skills. It is a learning disability that affects children and adults, and interferes with practically all aspects of the writing process, including spelling, legibility, word spacing and sizing, and expression.

What is it like to have dysgraphia? ›

Living with Dysgraphia. Dysgraphia affects handwriting and fine motor skills. It interferes with spelling, word spacing, and the general ability to put thoughts on paper. It makes the process of writing laboriously slow, with a product that is often impossible to read.

Is dysgraphia on the autism spectrum? ›

Dysgraphia isn't a form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Though dysgraphia commonly occurs in people with autism, you can have dysgraphia without having autism. Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by: Difficulties in social communication differences.

Is dysgraphia a symptom of ADHD? ›

Dysgraphia is a learning disability that sometimes accompanies ADHD and affects writing skills, handwriting and spelling.

Can dysgraphia be overcome? ›

There is no cure for dysgraphia, and medication will not help. But problems associated with writing and fine motor skills can be improved — especially if you start early.

How do you teach someone with dysgraphia? ›

Provide typed copies of classroom notes or lesson outlines to help the student take notes. Provide extra time to take notes and copy material. Allow the student to use an audio recorder or a laptop in class. Provide paper with different-colored or raised lines to help form letters in the right space.

Is there a cure for dysgraphia? ›

Dysgraphia – a learning disability that affects writing – has no quick, permanent fixes. The condition, characterized by illegible, messy handwriting and difficulty putting thoughts on paper, is usually treated by a combination of fine motor skill training and compensatory accommodations.

Is dysgraphia inherited? ›

Like other learning disabilities, dysgraphia is highly genetic and often runs in families. If you or another member of your family has dysgraphia, your child is more likely to have it, too.

Is dysgraphia considered a learning disability? ›

In summary, dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that can be diagnosed and treated. Children with dysgraphia usually have other problems such as difficulty with written expression.

Are you born with dysgraphia? ›

As a neurological condition, dysgraphia is usually present from birth and typically lasts into adulthood. While the condition is mostly genetic, in adults, dysgraphia – and, in extreme cases, agraphia - may develop after a brain injury, especially if the cerebellum is affected.

Can people with dysgraphia read? ›

Myth #4: Dysgraphia is the same thing as dyslexia.

Fact: It's true that both dysgraphia and dyslexia can affect kids' ability to spell. The two, however, are distinct conditions. Dyslexia makes it more difficult for a child to learn to read. On its own, dysgraphia doesn't affect a child's ability to read.

Can people with dysgraphia draw? ›

Dyslexic dysgraphia: In this form of dysgraphia, spontaneously written text (meaning writing that hasn't been traced or copied) is most strongly affected, and is often illegible, particularly as it goes on. Spelling, either oral or written, is extremely poor. Drawing and copying are not affected.

Is dysgraphia a mental illness? ›

It is not a mental health disorder, but rather a brain-based learning disability marked by difficulty forming letters, spelling words correctly, staying within lines, writing legibly, or organizing and expressing one's ideas on paper.

At what age is dysgraphia diagnosed? ›

Dysgraphia may present itself as early as preschool, when children will have trouble holding crayons, drawing, tracing, writing, or performing similar motor tasks. Dysgraphia can also present itself later in elementary or middle school when writing tasks become more complex.

What disability is dysgraphia? ›

Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects writing abilities. It can manifest itself as difficulties with spelling, poor handwriting and trouble putting thoughts on paper. Because writing requires a complex set of motor and information processing skills, saying a student has dysgraphia is not sufficient.

Does dysgraphia affect speech? ›

A person with dysgraphia may also struggle to form written sentences with correct grammar and punctuation, with common problems including ommitting words, words ordered incorrectly, incorrect verb and pronoun usage and word ending errors. People with dysgraphia may speak more easily and fluently than they write.

Does dysgraphia affect math? ›

Dysgraphia and Math

Dysgraphia doesn't limit itself to words--it also affects a students' ability to learn and apply math skills. For instance, students with dysgraphia may: Have inconsistent spacing between numbers and symbols. Omit numbers, letters, and words in writing.

Can a child overcome dysgraphia? ›

Some kids with dysgraphia struggle with the physical act of writing. Occupational therapy can often help with this. Therapists can work to improve the hand strength and fine motor coordination needed to type and write by hand. They might also help kids learn the correct arm position and body posture for writing.

What are the main types of dysgraphia? ›

There are three primary types of dysgraphia: dyslexic (connected to reading difficulties), motor (centering on fine-motor skills problems) and spatial (inability to put the letters, in space, where they should be). Written expression is so important in society, and individuals who have dysgraphia can fully participate.

Can you have multiple types of dysgraphia? ›

Dysgraphia is a neurological disorder that impairs written expression. The three types are dyslexic dysgraphia, motor dysgraphia, and spatial dysgraphia.

What is dysgraphia in psychology? ›

Overview. Dysgraphia makes it difficult for a person to form letters in writing. It's a neurological disorder that can affect children or adults. People with dysgraphia may also use the wrong word for what they're trying to communicate.

What is the difference between dysgraphia and dyspraxia? ›

Fact: Dyspraxia and dysgraphia can cause similar or overlapping struggles with writing. But they are different conditions. Dyspraxia causes problems with fine motor skills, including the physical task of printing and writing. Most children with dysgraphia struggle with printing and handwriting, too.

Does ADHD medication help dysgraphia? ›

The stimulant drugs often used to treat ADHD might also help to improve handwriting. We need more studies on this. But some research has found that these medications, together with movement training, could boost the motor skills needed for good handwriting.

Can a school psychologist diagnose dysgraphia? ›

School psychologists, as critical members of IEP Teams, have specialized skills which can assist in determining the identification of the underlying processing or neurobiological deficit of a SLD and whether characteristics and behaviors consistent with dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia are present.

Can an educational psychologist diagnose dysgraphia? ›

Educational psychologists use a series of tests to determine if a person has dysgraphia. These tests often include measures of rapid automatised naming, spelling, orthographic processing, expressive writing, working memory and overall cognitive ability.

Does cursive help with dysgraphia? ›

For many children with dysgraphia, cursive writing has several advantages. It eliminates the necessity of picking up a pencil and deciding where to replace it after each letter. Each letter starts on the line, thus eliminating another potentially confusing decision for the writer.

How do you differentiate students with dysgraphia? ›

Children with dysgraphia can record their ideas in ways that require little writing, such as a creating labelled diagram instead of an information report. Reciting spelling words instead of writing them down is another simple way to assess a child on their learning that doesn't require writing.

What percentage of the population has dysgraphia? ›

Since many school assignments involve writing in one form or another, dysgraphia can cause problems across the curriculum. It's estimated to occur in some form in four to 20 percent of the population.

Do occupational therapists work with dysgraphia? ›

An occupational therapist (OT) can provide activities that can address difficulty with handwriting and dysgraphia.

What are signs of dysgraphia? ›

Symptoms
  • Cramped grip, which may lead to a sore hand.
  • Difficulty spacing things out on paper or within margins (poor spatial planning)
  • Frequent erasing.
  • Inconsistency in letter and word spacing.
  • Poor spelling, including unfinished words or missing words or letters.
  • Unusual wrist, body, or paper position while writing.
17 Nov 2020

Is dysgraphia linked to ADHD? ›

One study found that among students diagnosed with ADHD, 59% had dysgraphia and 92% had weaknesses in "graphomotor skills." These are skills like hand-eye coordination and movement planning that you need for good handwriting.

How do I know if my child has dysgraphia? ›

Signs and symptoms of dysgraphia in children include the following:
  1. Difficulty forming letters or numbers by hand.
  2. Slow handwriting development compared to peers.
  3. Illegible or inconsistent writing.
  4. Mixed upper and lower case letters.
  5. Difficulty writing and thinking at same time.
  6. Difficulty with spelling.
9 Mar 2017

Is dysgraphia a form of autism? ›

Dysgraphia isn't a form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Though dysgraphia commonly occurs in people with autism, you can have dysgraphia without having autism. Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by: Difficulties in social communication differences.

How do you explain dysgraphia? ›

Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects writing abilities. It can manifest itself as difficulties with spelling, poor handwriting and trouble putting thoughts on paper. Because writing requires a complex set of motor and information processing skills, saying a student has dysgraphia is not sufficient.

Does dysgraphia count as a disability? ›

In summary, dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that can be diagnosed and treated. Children with dysgraphia usually have other problems such as difficulty with written expression.

Does dysgraphia run in families? ›

Like other learning disabilities, dysgraphia is highly genetic and often runs in families. If you or another member of your family has dysgraphia, your child is more likely to have it, too.

Do people outgrow dysgraphia? ›

Fact: Dysgraphia is a lifelong condition—there's no cure to make it go away. That doesn't mean, though, that people with dysgraphia can't succeed at writing and other language-based activities. There are a lot of ways to get help for dysgraphia, including apps and accommodations.

What does dysgraphia look like in adults? ›

Adults with dysgraphia have a hard time writing by hand and may struggle with letter formation, letter, word and line spacing, staying inside the margins, neatness, capitalization/punctuation rules, spelling, word choice, and even grammar.

Does dysgraphia affect drawing? ›

Drawing, copying, and oral spelling are not affected by linguistic dysgraphia.

How can a teacher help a child with dysgraphia? ›

Provide typed copies of classroom notes or lesson outlines to help the student take notes. Provide extra time to take notes and copy material. Allow the student to use an audio recorder or a laptop in class. Provide paper with different-colored or raised lines to help form letters in the right space.

How do you fix dysgraphia in adults? ›

Whenever possible, oral communication should be prioritized over written communication. – Supply writing aids. Pencil grips, bold-lined paper, or other tools can help adults with dysgraphia manage the physical process of writing. – Create computerized versions of common forms.

Are you born with dysgraphia? ›

As a neurological condition, dysgraphia is usually present from birth and typically lasts into adulthood. While the condition is mostly genetic, in adults, dysgraphia – and, in extreme cases, agraphia - may develop after a brain injury, especially if the cerebellum is affected.

Can children with dysgraphia read? ›

Myth #4: Dysgraphia is the same thing as dyslexia.

Fact: It's true that both dysgraphia and dyslexia can affect kids' ability to spell. The two, however, are distinct conditions. Dyslexia makes it more difficult for a child to learn to read. On its own, dysgraphia doesn't affect a child's ability to read.

Does dysgraphia affect math? ›

Dysgraphia and Math

Dysgraphia doesn't limit itself to words--it also affects a students' ability to learn and apply math skills. For instance, students with dysgraphia may: Have inconsistent spacing between numbers and symbols. Omit numbers, letters, and words in writing.

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5. Dysgraphia Is More Than Messy Handwriting
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