RasGuides: APA 7th Edition Guide: In-Text Citations (2023)

Why Cite Resources?

RasGuides: APA 7th Edition Guide: In-Text Citations (1)

Citing sources in the body of a research paper tells the reader that outside source material was used in the sentence where the in-text citation appears. This lets the reader know it is not their original work or thought.Citing sources:

  • Lets the reader know whose research or ideas or theories influenced the paper's author
  • Provides authority and support for the positions taken in the paper
  • Acknowledges others in the field by giving credit for their original work

In-text citations also serve as finding tools.Because in-text citations are composed of the first two elements of the reference for the resource (author's last name and publication date),it provides the reader with enough information to find the resource in the paper’s References list.In other words, in-text citations and references match!

What Needs to be Cited?

According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.),

"Plagiarism is the act of presenting the words, ideas, or images of another as one's own; it denies authors credit where credit is due" (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 21).

In other words, using information from source material must be cited in the text and in the Referencelistof APA-style papers. This includes usingothers:

  • Words- Quotations
  • Ideas- Summaries, Paraphrases
  • Data- Numbers, Data
  • Images- Pictures, Charts, Graphs

View examples of references and companion in-text citations in the References pages in the APA Guide.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Creating In-Text Citations: Paraphrases and Summaries

(Author, Date)

APAstyle usesthe Author-Date citation system.In-text citations appear in the text of the paper to let readers know that information in the sentence where the in-text citation appearswas taken from source material.They are composed of the first two elements of the corresponding reference (Author, Date)for the resource and are designed to be short to avoid disrupting the flow of the paper.

There are two types of in-text citation:

  • Parenthetical
  • Narrative

Parenthetical In-Text Citation

This is the most common form of in-text citation. It is composed of the author(s) last name and the year of publication.It iscalled a parenthetical citation because this information is enclosed in parentheses.The parenthetical citation appears at the end of the sentence where information from the source was usedand, because it is a part of the sentence, appears before the period.See the example of a parenthetical citation below:

Students reported they prefer writing on a computer rather than with paper and pen(Cheung, 2016).

Narrative In-Text Citation

The narrative citation is used when the author's name is used in a sentence.In this case, the year of publication enclosed in parentheses follows the author's name in the sentence.See the example of a narrative citation below:

(Video) Episode 7: Creating an Annotated Bibliography in NoodleTools

In his survey, Cheung(2016)found that undergraduate writers produced higher quality writing when composing on a computer rather than with paper and pen.

In-Text Citations and References are Connected and Match!

In-text citations have two functions.First, they alert the reader that information from source material was used in a sentence where the in-text citation appears.It lets the reader know who's work influenced the writer's position or conclusions on the topic. Second, it serves as a finding tool so that the reader can quickly find the full reference in the referencelist.The reference and in-text citation need to match.The example below illustrates how these match:

RasGuides: APA 7th Edition Guide: In-Text Citations (2)

Formatting In-Text Citations

In-text citations follow the Author-Date pattern.In-text citations can appear at the end of a sentence (parenthetical in-text citation) or in the text of the sentence if the author's name is incorporated (narrative in-text citation).If a work is by three or more authors, list the first author's last name followed by the phrase "et al." and the year of publication.

Examples of in-text citations for works by one author, two authors,three or more authors, and group authorsappear below:

Work by One Author

Parenthetical in-text citation (Davis, 2019).

Narrative in-text citation According to Davis (2019),...

Work by Two Authors

Parenthetical in-text citation (Ryan & Cooper, 2020).

Narrative in-text citation In the study conducted by Ryan and Cooper (2020),...

Work by Three or More Authors

Parenthetical in-text citation (Morrison et al., 2018).

Narrative in-text citation In the Morrison et al. (2018) study,...

Work by Group Author

Parenthetical in-text citation

  • First citation (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2019).
  • Subsequent citation (ANA, 2019).

Narrative in-text citation

  • First citation The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020) report...
  • Subsequent citation According to the CDC (2020), recommendations include...

Placing In-Text Citations

In-text citations follow the Author-Date pattern and appear in the sentence where information from source material is used. Placement of in-text citations vary depending on whether the author(s) name is incorporated into the sentence (narrative citation) or if the author(s) is not named directly in the sentence(parenthetical citation).In-text citations are a part of the sentence and appear before the ending period.

Parenthetical Citations

A parenthetical citationappearswhen information from source material is used, but the author(s) name is not included in the sentence text.This type of in-text citation is composed of the author(s) last name comma year of publication enclosed in parentheses.It is placed at the end of the sentence before the ending period.

Example:

Students reported they prefer writing on a computer rather than with paper and pen(Cheung, 2016).

Narrative Citations

A narrative citation is used when the author(s) name is included in the sentence text.In this case, the year of publication is enclosed in parentheses and appears after the author(s) name.

Example:

In his survey,Cheung(2016)found that undergraduate writers produced higher quality writing when composing on a computer rather than with paper and pen.

Creating In-Text Citations: Quotations

Author-Date-#pattern:

When you copy a portion of the text directly from a source, it is called adirect quotation. You will enclose the quote in quotation marks, and your citation will contain the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and page number of where the quote can be found in the source:

If you are using a source that haspages, then you will use an abbreviatedp.:

(Smith, 2018, p. 4).

If you are using a source that does not have pages (a website), then you will use aparagraph number. You will count down to the paragraph where your quote is located. You will use an abbreviatedpara.:

(Wilson & Miller, 2019,para. 2).

Parenthetical In-Text Citation:

If the author’s name is not incorporated in your sentence include the author’s last name,year of publication, and page or paragraph number separated withcommas and enclosed in parentheses at the end of the quotation:

Many writers appreciate the “ability to edit instantaneously”(Smith, 2008, p. 72)when writing in pencil or on a computer.

Narrative In-Text Citation

If youincorporate the author’s name into your sentence follow the author's namewith the year of publication in parentheses and include the location in parentheses directly following the quote:

In his survey,Miller (2006)found that some writers like the sound “of graphite turning ideas into reality”(p. 72)when writing in pencil.

Quotations of 40 or More Words Require Block Format

Quotations of 40 or more words includedin a paper arepresented in block format.The quotation begins on a new line and the whole quotation is indented 1/2 inch from the left margin. No quotation marks are used and the citation appears at the end of the quotation after the final punctuation mark.In fact, this is the only situation where a parenthetical reference appears outside of a period!

Writing Tip:Block quotations should be used sparingly. Remember that your voice is important -- after all it is your paper!Instead of using a block quotation, consider taking pieces of the larger quote and either paraphrase them (put their ideas into your own words and provide an in-text citation) or include precise, shorter quotations from the larger quote, integrated into your own sentences.Either approach will help to ensure that you (the writer) have engaged with information in the quote anddirectly applied it to the topic of the paper.

Here is an example of a block quotation. Note: Normally the passage would be double spaced but, due to space restrictions, this example is single spaced.

Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical reference should come after the closing punctuation mark. (Angeli, et al., 2018,para. 27)

To create a block quotation, use the block indent button:

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NOTE about Quotations:Use themsparingly!

Although paraphrasing information is preferable, there are specific situations when a quotation can be an effective choice. For example:

  • Famous Quotation
    • Including a famous or familiar quotation can be effective when introducing a topic or in setting the tone of a paper.
  • Words of an Expert
    • Providing the words of an expert can bolster your position or argument.
  • Couldn't Say It Better
    • In rare instances, it may be difficult to paraphrase a short passage without changing the meaning;including a precise quotation may be preferable.
  • Facts and Statistics
    • Sources of facts and statistics--including those presented in tables or charts-- must be documented in your paper using in-textcitations and references.
  • Opposite Point of View
    • Including a quotation that opposes your position can be an effective method to prove why your position on the issue is preferable.

Paraphrases and Summaries

Author-Datepattern:

When yousummarize,paraphrase, or otherwise refer to an idea, concept, or fact gained through your research, your citation will contain the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication:

(Smith, 2018)

(Wilson & Miller, 2019)

Qualities of a "Good" Paraphrase

Academic writing often requires students to integrateinformation found in source material. There are various ways to do this; quotations, summaries, or paraphrases. Aparaphraseis adetailed restatement in your own words of main ideas from the portion of the source that is paraphrased.

Creating a well-written paraphrase can be a challenging skill to learn. Understanding the qualities of a "good" paraphrase can help.A well-written paraphrase includes the following qualities:

  • Includes all the important details
    • All of the main details in the original appear in the paraphrase
  • True to the original
    • The paraphrase does not change the original author's meaning.
  • Same length or shorter than the original
    • ​The paraphrase is roughly the same length or shorter thanthe original.
  • In your own words
    • The paraphrase is written using language, tone, and style that is your own.
  • Source is cited in-text and in the References list.
    • Paraphrased material must include both an in-text citation and a reference in the References list.

Example of a well-written paraphrase:

Original Passage:

University of Tulsapsychologist Judy Berry studied seventy-three Oklahoma eighth graders who had taken a parenting course. For ten days, each student had to care for a ten-pound sack of flour as if it were a baby. Berry's research on her young subjects suggests the course worked. The teenagers in the study had a sounder sense of parental responsibility than they did before they took the course.

Harper, K. S. (1996). 'Flour babies'surrogacyteaches eight-graders parenting skills.Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(4), 25-28.

Example of a Good Paraphrase:

Extended parental role-playing can actually increase an adolescent's awareness of parental responsibilities as shown by psychologist Judy Berry's study involving eighth grade students (Harper, 1996).

Avoid Patch Writing!

Students learning how to paraphrase may inadvertently "patch write." Patch writing occurs when a writer usesa passage from source material and changes a few words and phrases before including the passage in a paper or assignment. Not only is this "bad"paraphrasing but it is also a form ofplagiarism. View the example below to gain a better understanding of patch writing:

Original Passage:

University of Tulsa psychologist Judy Berry studied seventy-three Oklahoma eighth graders who had taken a parenting course. For ten days, each student had to care for a ten-pound sack of flour as if it were a baby. Berry's research on her young subjects suggests the course worked. The teenagers in the study had a sounder sense of parental responsibility than they did before they took the course.

Patch Writing Example:

University of Tulsa psychologist Judy Berryconducted a study ofeighth graders who had taken a parenting course.Students had to treata ten-pound sack of flour as if it were a baby.The results of Berry's study suggestedthat teenagers in the study had abetter understandingof parental responsibility than they did before they took the course(Harper, 1996).

TIP: Notice how the bolded phrases are identical to the original. Even though there is an in-text citation, patch writing is still a form of plagiarism.

FAQs

How do you in text cite the 7th APA? ›

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

How do you in text cite 7th edition APA 3 authors? ›

When you have 3 or more authors, you only use the first author's surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with "et al." (Latin for "and others"). In your reference list, you list all of the authors (up to 20).

How do you in text cite 6 authors in APA 7th edition? ›

Number of Authors to Include in In-text Citations

For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.

How do you cite in text APA example? ›

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.

What is APA in text citation? ›

In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the text of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the Reference list. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation.

How do you in-text cite 3 authors in APA? ›

A Work by Three or More Authors

List only the first author's name followed by “et al.” in every citation, even the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources. In et al., et should not be followed by a period. Only "al" should be followed by a period.

How do you in-text cite two authors in APA 7th edition? ›

APA in-text citations with multiple authors

If a work has two authors, separate their names with an ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation or “and” in a narrative citation. If there are three or more authors, only include the first author's last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”.

What should an APA 7th reference list look like? ›

A basic reference list entry for a journal article in APA must include:
  • Author or authors. ...
  • Year of publication of the article (in round brackets).
  • Article title.
  • Journal title (in italics).
  • Volume of journal (in italics).
  • Issue of journal (no italics).
  • Page range of article.
8 Sept 2022

How do you do in text citations? ›

In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8). If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks.

Where are in text citations placed in an APA Style essay? ›

APA citation basics

All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

How do you cite an online article in APA in text? ›

When citing a webpage or online article, the APA in-text citation consists of the author's last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).

How do you cite 5 authors in APA 7th edition? ›

Book with Three to Five Authors or Editors

NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name followed by et al. and the year. References: Author Surname, First Initial.

How do you cite more than 6 authors in APA? ›

If a document has six or more authors, simply provide the last name of the first author with "et al." from the first citation to the last. Example: Thomas et al. (2007) likened abnormal psychology to...

How do you cite multiple authors in-text citations? ›

Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses. In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

How do you in text cite a quote from a website? ›

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.).

How do you in text cite a website in APA with no author? ›

Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.: ("All 33 Chile Miners," 2010). Note: Use the full title of the web page if it is short for the parenthetical citation.

How do you in text cite a website with no author APA 7th edition? ›

How do you cite a website in APA 7th edition no author? When you have a website in APA 7 with no author, you use the title, date, publisher, and URL. There is no period after the URL in the citation. Additionally, a website title is in italics.

Does APA in text citation require page numbers? ›

Always include page numbers in the APA in-text citation when quoting a source. Don't include page numbers when referring to a work as a whole – for example, an entire book or journal article.

How do you cite multiple sentences from the same source APA 7? ›

The rule of thumb is to cite the very first sentence, make it clear you are still talking about the same work in your subsequent sentences (for example, "The study noted that..."), and then confirm you are still talking about the work by including another citation at the end (if this has continued for several sentences ...

How do you cite a journal article with multiple authors in APA 7th edition? ›

For one or two authors, list all authors in the reference. For three or more authors, list the first author followed by et al. This includes the first time the source is used in the paper.

How do you cite a source within a source in APA 7? ›

Include both the original author and year and the author and year of the work where quote/idea was found in the in-text reference. Add "as cited in" before the author in the in-text reference. For example - (Harris, 2009, as cited in Lewis, 2019).

How do you in text cite two authors with the same last name APA? ›

⁠If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname but have different initials, include the first authors' initials in all in-text citations, even if the year of publication differs.

How do you cite multiple sources from the same author APA? ›

221: To cite two or more works by the same author, give the name in the first entry only. Thereafter, in place of the name, type three hyphens, followed by a period and the title. The three hyphens stand for exactly the same name as in the preceding entry.

How do you cite 7 authors in APA 7th edition? ›

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipsis in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.

Is APA 7 references double spaced? ›

Place it in bold format but do not capitalize or italicize it. Double-space the list. Do not add any extra spaces between references. Start the first line of each reference at the left margin; indent each subsequent line five spaces (a hanging indent).

Do you indent in APA 7th edition? ›

APA Style (7th ed.)

Begin every line of text from the left margin, except for the first line of each paragraph. Indent each line of a new paragraph one tab space, which should be set at 1.27 cm or 0.5 in (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 45).

Where do in text citations appear? ›

The in-text citation should occur in the sentence where the cited material has been used: Signal phrase reference (author's name) appears within the sentence with page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence. Full parenthetical reference (author last name and page number) appears at the end of the sentence.

Why should in text citations be included? ›

An in-text citation is the brief form of the reference that you include in the body of your work. It gives enough information to uniquely identify the source in your reference list.

How do you cite multiple articles in text APA? ›

When citing multiple works parenthetically, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons. Arrange two or more works by the same authors by year of publication. Place citations with no date first. Then, order works with dates in chronological order.

How do you cite a whole paragraph in APA 7? ›

When paraphrasing or summarising using one source over several sentences or even a whole paragraph, cite the source in the first sentence. There is no need to cite the work again in this paragraph provided it is clear that this is the only source being paraphrased.

How do you cite an online article in APA 7th edition? ›

Piece of Online Content

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of online content: Subtitle. Website Name. URL.

How often do you use in text citations? ›

You should provide an in-text citation whenever you quote, paraphrase or summarize research and ideas that are not your own. This may include theories, best practice guidelines, and of course, statistics. You should also cite whenever you present a fact that is not common knowledge.

How do you do an in text citation for a website? ›

Luckily, writing the in-text citation for a website or webpage is easy: Simply include the author and year of publication. The URL goes in the corresponding reference list entry (and yes, you can leave the links live).

How do you in text cite APA 7th edition with no author? ›

In-Text Citations: Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author's last name and date of publication. When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline” style capitalization, and the year.

How do you cite an online article in text? ›

Citing non-print or sources from the Internet
  1. Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
  2. Do not provide paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser's print preview function.

What should an APA 7th reference list look like? ›

A basic reference list entry for a journal article in APA must include:
  • Author or authors. ...
  • Year of publication of the article (in round brackets).
  • Article title.
  • Journal title (in italics).
  • Volume of journal (in italics).
  • Issue of journal (no italics).
  • Page range of article.
8 Sept 2022

How do you in text cite a website in APA with no author? ›

Unknown Author

If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.

How do you cite an online article in APA 7th edition? ›

Piece of Online Content

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of online content: Subtitle. Website Name. URL.

How do you in text cite a source with multiple authors APA? ›

Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses. In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

How do you cite multiple sources in text APA 7? ›

When citing multiple works parenthetically, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons. Arrange two or more works by the same authors by year of publication. Place citations with no date first, followed by works with dates in chronological order.

How do you in text cite a book with no author? ›

Remember that for an in-text (parenthetical) citation of a book with no author, you should provide the name of the work in the signal phrase and the page number in parentheses. You may also use a shortened version of the title of the book accompanied by the page number.

How do you cite an Internet source in APA format? ›

APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date.

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