Integrating Sources in the Text of Your Paper - Coates Library (2023)

Integrating Sources in the Text of Your Paper - Coates Library (1)

As writers use facts, ideas, and quotations from the writing of others, they must integrate these into and within their own ideas. While it is important to cite your sources, it is also important that you integrate the information itself into your writing in an appropriate manner. The faulty integration of a source, even if the source is cited, can be considered plagiarism.

The following strategies for integrating sources in your paper are generally accepted by most writing and citation guidebooks. Each description includes a definition, an example of the strategy, as well as benefits and challenges involved in using the strategy. Examples of in-text citation on this page have been completed using APA citation style and have been created using an excerpt from Electric Rhetoric: Classical Rhetoric, Oralism, and a New Literacy by Kathleen E. Welch (1999).

  • Direct Quotation
  • Partial Direct Quotations (text removed)
  • Partial Direct Quotations (text introduced or concluded)
  • Block Quotation
  • Paraphrasing
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Direct Quotation

Definition: The use of the exact words of the writer, often in complete sentences, surrounded by quotation marks.

Example:

Original Text:

“If writing is a tool, then it is part of the Cartesian dualistic reality in which we all continue to live. A tool is a thing out there in the world, a palpable object that one can store in the garage and retrieve as necessary. A tool can be put aside; language cannot.”

Direct Quotation of the Text:

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“If writing is a tool, then it is part of the Cartesian dualistic reality in which we all continue to live. A tool is a thing out there in the world, a palpable object that one can store in the garage and retrieve as necessary” (Welch 1999, 145).

Benefit of using this strategy:

There is never any doubt that you have given credit to the source.

Challenge of using this strategy: Essays with many examples of direct quoting are often thought of as being “choppy” or “lacking flow.” The reason for this is that the words and ways of using language of so many others have been included in a a single text. Therefore, direct quotation should be used in concert with other integration strategies.

Partial Direct Quotation (used to remove text from the middle of a quotation)

Definition: The use of a direct quotation in which a middle section of the quote has been removed. The text that has been directly quoted must be enclosed in quotation marks and the source must be cited.

Example:

Original Text:

“If writing is a tool, then it is part of the Cartesian dualistic reality in which we all continue to live. A tool is a thing out there in the world, a palpable object that one can store in the garage and retrieve as necessary. A tool can be put aside; language cannot.”

Partial Direct Quotation of the Text:

“If writing is a tool, then it is part of the Cartesian dualistic reality in which we all continue to live. A tool is a… palpable object that one can store in the garage and retrieve as necessary” (Welch 1999, 145).

Benefit of using this strategy: Removing a section from the middle of a quotation allows you to include the best and most pertinent part of the quotation in your essay.

Challenge of using this strategy: The point where a quotation is stopped and restarted should make a smooth connection so that the quote is clear for your reader.

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Partial Direct Quotation (used in the same sentence along with your own wording)

Definition: The use of a direct quotation in which the beginning or end of the quote has been revised so that the sentence may be introduced or completed by your own words. The text that has been directly quoted must be enclosed in quotation marks and the source must be cited.

Example:

Original Text:

“If writing is a tool, then it is part of the Cartesian dualistic reality in which we all continue to live. A tool is a thing out there in the world, a palpable object that one can store in the garage and retrieve as necessary. A tool can be put aside; language cannot.”

Partial Direct Quotation of the Text:

As Welch (1999, 145) has argued, the “tool” analogy for thinking about writing is a faulty premise, since “a tool is a thing out there in the world, a palpable object that one can store in the garage and retrieve as necessary. A tool can be put aside; language cannot.”

Benefit of using this strategy: This strategy allows you to flow in and out of the quote by using your own words and your own thinking.

Challenge of using this strategy: Be certain that the partial direct quotation, along with your own writing, is not so long that the sentence becomes challenging for the reader to comprehend or follow.

Block Quotation

Definition: The use of a direct quotation of considerable length requires that the text be “blocked” or set apart from the rest of the text. The source must be cited, but the “blocking” of the quotation takes the place of quotation marks.

Format guidelines for Block Quotation:

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MLA: Block quotations, or direct quotations longer than 4 lines of text, should be indented one inch from the left margin. They should be double-spaced, without quotation marks, and should include a parenthetical reference citing the source of the quote.

APA: Block quotations, or direct quotations of 40 words or more in length, should be indented one inch from the left margin. They should be double-spaced, without quotation marks, and should include a parenthetical reference citing the source of the quote.

Chicago: Block quotations, or direct quotations of 100 words or 8 lines in length, should be indented one inch from the left margin. They should be double-spaced without quotation marks.

Turabian: Block quotations, or direct quotations of 100 words or 8 lines in length, should be indented one inch from the left margin. They should be single-spaced, without quotation marks, and should include a parenthetical reference citing the source of the quote.

Benefit of using this strategy: This is less “strategy” and more “rule.” However, setting the quote apart allows the reader to distinguish between your ideas and the ideas of another writer.

Challenge of using this strategy: An overdependence on block quotation may suggest that (1) the essay is being padded for length; (2) writers using block quotations are not exhibiting their critical thinking and writing as much as they are collecting the thoughts of other writers; or (3) the writer should consider paraphrase as a way to communicate the same idea with less dependence on direct quotation.

Paraphrasing

Definition: The use of information from a source that has been reinterpreted and rewritten in the words, structure, and context of a different author. Quotation marks are not required for the paraphrased use of a source, but the source must still be cited.

Example:

Original Text:

“If writing is a tool, then it is part of the Cartesian dualistic reality in which we all continue to live. A tool is a thing out there in the world, a palpable object that one can store in the garage and retrieve as necessary. A tool can be put aside; language cannot.”

Paraphrase of the text:

Attempts to define writing as a tool suggest that it is strictly a utilitarian activity, when in fact, writing is a product and component of language and cannot be used and then set aside in the same manner as a tool (Welch 1999, 145).

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Benefit of using this strategy: Since the words of other writers are filtered through your own writing style, the use of paraphrasing will enhance the “flow” of your writing. In addition, it also signifies that you have synthesized the information and that you can present the information in a new way for a different audience.

Challenge of using this strategy: It may be challenging to see someone else’s words and then try to communicate the same ideas using different words and structure. Faulty paraphrasing, when writers use exact wording or sentence structure without also using quotation marks, is not only incorrect but can be considered plagiarism—whether it was intentional or accidental.

If you have questions about integrating outside sources in your writing you have a number of options. First, ask your instructor for guidance. Second, consider visiting Trinity University’s Writing Center to receive assistance. As always, review the citation style guide you are using to see more examples of these integration strategies. And as always, visit the library’s Help Desk in the Information Commons.

FAQs

How do you integrate sources into an essay? ›

The three ways to present sources in support of your central argument are:
  1. Quotation - when you use the exact words from the source. ...
  2. Paraphrase - when you state the ideas from another source in your own words. ...
  3. Summary - much like a paraphrase, but used in cases where you are trying to give an overview of many ideas.

Why will you acknowledge and integrate sources within a text How will you do that within a text? ›

By introducing your sources within the text of your paper, you allow your reader to see that you have researched the topic and taken the works of experts in the field into consideration. However, if source are not integrated properly, you may be in danger of plagiarizing the source.

How do you integrate in-text citations? ›

In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8). If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks.

What rules will you follow in acknowledging and integrating sources within a text? ›

Choosing Sources to Establish Credibility
  • To Show Your Knowledge of the Subject. ...
  • Aligning Yourself with Experts. ...
  • To Show Agreement. ...
  • To Introduce Factual Evidence. ...
  • Quoting Directly. ...
  • Quoting Previously Quoted Material. ...
  • Using a Quotation within a Quotation. ...
  • Using Block Quotations.

How do you integrate a source into writing examples? ›

There are three ways to integrate sources: summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting. Summarizing is typically used when you only want to incorporate the main idea of a source. For instance, you might summarize the conclusion of a study or a scene from a novel into a concise statement in your own voice.

Why you need to integrate your sources into the discussion in writing? ›

Research writing requires you to connect outside sources to your own ideas. Research can be seen as a conversation between various researchers and audiences. By framing the sources you use, you put your own ideas into dialogue with the ideas of others while clearly giving them credit.

How you can integrate what you've learned about research into your own writing? ›

Generally speaking, there are three ways to integrate sources into a research paper – summarizing, paraphrasing and quoting.

Why it is important to acknowledge your sources when paraphrasing and quoting the work of others? ›

It allows those who are reading your work to locate your sources, in order to learn more about the ideas that you include in your paper. Citing your sources consistently and accurately helps you avoid committing plagiarism in your writing.

How do you effectively integrate textual evidence in writing and academic paper? ›

There are three main ways to integrate evidence from sources into your writing: quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. Each form requires a citation because you are using another person's words and/or ideas.

What does it mean to integrate a quote? ›

Integrating quotations means “to weave the author's words into your own sentences.” Quotations should not just be thrown into your essay. You may use block quotations in this research paper, but generally do not use them in a standard 2-3 page essay. Use only the best parts of your quotation.

What are the steps for integrating source material in MLA style? ›

Move One: The writer introduces the context of the source material. Move Two: The writer quotes, paraphrases, or summarizes the source. Move Three: The writer cites the material. Move Four: The writer comments on or interprets the source material for how it relates to the writer's main idea.

What is an integral reference? ›

Integral reference. Integral reference aims to emphasize the writer in your paper. Examples: Baron (1998) also notes the emails, apart from being stylistically informal, usually tend to be shorter than telephone exchanges and often dispense with conventional opening and closing routines. Non-integral reference.

What is a good approach when integrating evidence? ›

Remember that specific evidence is strong evidence; avoid broad generalizations or vague ideas. Offer clear examples, detailed processes, numerical data, theoretical background, or other types of evidence. Be intentional about your use of evidence.

How do you acknowledge the source of information? ›

The general format is: author (if any), year, title of article, Newspaper name, place of publication, day and month, page number, section number (if any).

How do you plan to effectively integrate evidence in an essay? ›

In order to use evidence effectively, you need to integrate it smoothly into your essay by following this pattern: State your claim. Give your evidence, remembering to relate it to the claim. Comment on the evidence to show how it supports the claim.

What does integrate sources mean? ›

Integrating a source means using another author's writing to help build your credibility and argument. Just be sure to cite everything you use to give credit to the authors who inspired and informed your work. There are three main ways of integrating sources into your paper: 1.

What is integration explain the sources of integration? ›

In an IT context, integration refers to the end result of a process that aims to stitch together different, often disparate, subsystems so that the data contained in each becomes part of a larger, more comprehensive system that, ideally, quickly and easily shares data when needed.

Why is the inclusion of sources important in academic writing and research? ›

It's important to cite sources you used in your research for several reasons: To show your reader you've done proper research by listing sources you used to get your information. To be a responsible scholar by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledging their ideas.

How can I integrate the ideas of some other writers into my own academic writing? ›

Several options exist for incorporating the words and ideas of others into your own work: Quote directly: put quotation marks around the words and identify the source. Paraphrase: put the information into your own words and identify the source. Summarize: take the key ideas and paraphrase them and identify the source.

How does well integrated sources establish credibility? ›

Well-integrated sources build credibility in several ways. First, the source material adds evidence and support to your argument, making it more persuasive. Second, the signal phrase highlights the reputation and qualifications of the source, thereby adding to the source material's credibility.

How many sources should you incorporate in your paper? ›

Example: A paper that has 10 pages of content (the body of the paper) needs at least 10 sources in its literature review. A thesis of 100 pages (in the body) includes at least 100 sources.

How do you introduce a source in an essay MLA? ›

Always introduce sources that you are summarizing, paraphrasing, or quoting. When you introduce a source with the author's name and/or the date, this information does not need to be repeated in the parenthetical citation at the end. Introducing sources in this way is called signal phrasing.

What are sources in an essay? ›

A source is the place where you gained information used in your writing. A source can be a printed document, an online document, a speech, a quote or even a television or radio program. The best sources are those in which your reader can go back and verify for themselves the information you utilized.

Where do you cite sources in an essay? ›

MLA citation style requires that writers cite a source within the text of their essay at the end of the sentence in which the source is used. The parenthetical reference should be inserted after the last quotation mark but before the period at the end of the sentence.

What are three ways you can cite a source in your work? ›

There are three ways to use sources effectively: summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting directly.

How do you introduce an author and title in an essay examples? ›

TEXTS:
  • Introduce the text you're writing about in the beginning of your essay by mentioning the author's full name and the complete title of the work. Titles of books should be underlined or put in italics. ...
  • In subsequent references to the author, use his or her last name.

What are the steps for integrating source material in MLA style? ›

Move One: The writer introduces the context of the source material. Move Two: The writer quotes, paraphrases, or summarizes the source. Move Three: The writer cites the material. Move Four: The writer comments on or interprets the source material for how it relates to the writer's main idea.

How do you introduce a quote in an essay examples? ›

How to quote in an essay?
  1. Use a full sentence followed by a colon to introduce a quotation. ...
  2. Begin a sentence with your own words, then complete it with quoted words. ...
  3. Use an introductory phrase naming the source, followed by a comma to quote a critic or researcher.

How do you integrate sources? ›

Generally speaking, there are three ways to integrate sources into a research paper – summarizing, paraphrasing and quoting. →You will want to summarize and paraphrase most often in your research paper, using direct quotes sparingly.

What is an example of source? ›

The definition of source is where someone or something came from. An example of a source is solar energy coming from the sun. An example of a source is the person who inspires you. An example of a source is the person who gives a juicy story to a magazine reporter.

Why is a source important? ›

It's important to cite sources you used in your research for several reasons: To show your reader you've done proper research by listing sources you used to get your information. To be a responsible scholar by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledging their ideas.

How do you cite a sentence? ›

Basic Guidelines

Signal phrase reference (author's name) appears within the sentence with page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence. Full parenthetical reference (author last name and page number) appears at the end of the sentence.

How do you cite your sources? ›

In most cases, parenthetical citations include the author's last name and the page number for the information cited. Footnotes and endnotes contain full bibliographic citations for the first time a source is cited and abbreviated citations (author's last name and page number) for each successive citation.

How do you cite a source in an essay without an author? ›

Unknown Author

If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.

What are the types of sources? ›

Types of Sources
  • Scholarly publications (Journals)
  • Popular sources (News and Magazines)
  • Professional/Trade sources.
  • Books / Book Chapters.
  • Conference proceedings.
  • Government Documents.
  • Theses & Dissertations.
5 May 2022

Which sources or References can you use to find other information about the issue or topic presented? ›

General and Subject Encyclopedias and Dictionaries are important sources to consider when initially researching a topic. Specifically, CREDO REFERENCE is an excellent database compilation of encyclopedias, dictionaries as well as subject encyclopedias.

How do we use effective sources? ›

There are three ways to use sources effectively: summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting directly.

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